Ex-Theranos CEO Elizabeth Holmes says ‘I don’t know’ 600+ times in depo tapes: Nightline Part 2/2
นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูความรู้เพิ่มเติมที่นี่
In neverbeforebroadcasted depositions, attorneys for the Securities and Exchange Commission ask Holmes questions about whether she helped orchestrate an \”elaborate, yearslong fraud.\”
WATCH THE FULL EPISODE OF NIGHTLINE: https://bit.ly/2RR3UPK
‘Nightline’ documentary, podcast: ‘The Dropout,’ the story of Elizabeth Holmes, Theranos https://abcn.ws/2SYNUY7
3 MInute Paper Review :A Century of Evidence on Trend-Following
A Century of Evidence on TrendFollowing
Today, mitochondria and chloroplasts would not be able to survive outside a cell, but according to the endosymbiotic theory, they were once independently living cells! The first cells on earth are thought to have appeared around 3.8 billion years ago, 750 million years after the earth’s formation. These cells were prokaryotes – cells lacking organelles or other internal membranebound structures. It isn’t until 2.7 billion years ago that eukaryotes cells with a nucleus enclosed in membranes appear in the fossil record.
Eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes. Here is how that is thought to have happened. A prokaryote grew in size, and as it did, it’s surface area to volume ratio decreased. So, to increase the ratio, the cell developed infoldings in its membrane. Eventually, these infoldings pinched off from the cell membrane to form an early endomembrane system surrounding the nucleoid. This was the first membranebound nucleus, and hence this was the first eukaryotic cell.
This eukaryotic cell endophagocytosed an aerobic – or oxygenusing – prokaryotic cell, which may have been prey or a parasite. Genomic sequencing of cells today indicates that this prokaryote was from a group of bacteria called the alphaproteobacteria. In any case, this cell avoids digestion and becomes an endosymbiont – in other words, a cell living within another cell.
Funny enough, this endosymbiont became useful to the eukaryote. The aerobic prokaryote was able to use oxygen to make energy – a process called respiration – which was nice because the earth’s oxygen concentrations were increasing at this time due to the activity of cyanobacteria. The aerobic prokaryote benefited from its host because the cytoplasm was full of halfdigested food molecules. Digesting these molecules with oxygen, the prokaryote produced so much energy, that some of the ATP leaked into the cell’s cytoplasm – HURRAY!! So as other eukaryotes went extinct with the rising oxygen levels, the eukaryote and the endosymbiont become best pals – with the endosymbiont becoming a mitochondrion. At this point, the endosymbiont became an obligate endosymbiont, meaning it cannot survive on its own outside the cell.
Some time later, the same process occurred with a cyanobacterium, which becomes the chloroplast. This eukaryote was the ancestor of plants and algae. We know that chloroplasts evolved later because plant cells have both mitochondria and chloroplasts, while animal cells have only mitochondria.
But what’s the proof that endosymbiosis happened? First, mitochondria and chloroplasts replicate on their own through something similar to binary fission – and cells cannot create new ones otherwise.p The genome of these organelles is also remarkably similar to those of prokaryotes – mitochondria, chloroplasts, and bacteria can all have a single circular DNA molecule. In addition, porins and cardiolipin are only found in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacteria.
You may have one more question… How are mitochondria passed from generation to generation? Well, you get your mitochondria from your mom. So next time someone says your genetic info is 50/50, you can tell them that!
Endosymbiosis progression images redrawn from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbiogenesis/media/File:Serial_endosymbiosis.svg
Eukaryotic cell redrawn from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eukaryotic_Cell_(animal).jpg
Mitochondrion redrawn from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Animal_mitochondrion_diagram_en.svg
The benefits of a bilingual brain – Mia Nacamulli
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View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/howspeakingmultiplelanguagesbenefitsthebrainmianacamulli
It’s obvious that knowing more than one language can make certain things easier — like traveling or watching movies without subtitles. But are there other advantages to having a bilingual (or multilingual) brain? Mia Nacamulli details the three types of bilingual brains and shows how knowing more than one language keeps your brain healthy, complex and actively engaged.
Lesson by Mia Nacamulli, animation by TEDEd.
Error, So sorry, of course the liver is on the right and the spleen on the left, dont know how I managed to get that worng.
Thrombocytopenia and splenic platelet directed immune responses after intravenous ChAdOx1 nCov19 administration
Recently a rare and novel complication of SARSCoV2 targeted adenovirus vaccines has emerged:
thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS)
Low platelets, clot formation at unusual sites and plateletactivating PF4polyanion antibodies (reminiscent of heparininduced thrombocytopenia).
In vitro and in vivo models
We show that intravenous but not intramuscular injection of ChAdOx1 nCov19 triggers plateletadenovirus aggregate formation and platelet activation.
After intravenous injection, these aggregates are phagocytosed by macrophages in the spleen
This is followed by a pronounced Bcell response with the emergence of circulating antibodies binding to platelets.
Our work contributes to the understanding of TTS and highlights accidental intravenous injection as potential mechanism for postvaccination TTS.
Hence, safe intramuscular injection, with aspiration prior to injection, could be a potential preventive measure when administering adenovirusbased vaccines.
Consistent results with mice and human platelets
Vaccines are routinely administered intramuscularly (i.m.) and trigger immune responses mainly in the draining lymph nodes
Based on our finding that adenoviral vaccine binds to blood platelets, we hypothesized that accidental intravenous injection of adenoviral vaccine might lead to plateletadenovirus aggregate formation with platelet activation
The decline in platelet count was dosedependent and correlated directly with adenoviruspositive platelets circulating in the blood one hour after i.v. injection
Intravenous but not i.m. injection of ChAdOx1 nCov19 resulted in a strong increase in plateletadenovirus aggregates
Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I University Hospital LudwigMaximilian University Munich, Germany
DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Munich Heart Alliance, Germany
Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik III University Hospital LudwigMaximilian University Munich, Germany
Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific, Institute, Milan, Italy.
Previous peer reviewed evidence
Intravenous administration of recombinant adenoviruses causes thrombocytopenia, anemia and erythroblastosis in rabbits, (Journal of Gene Medicine, 1999)
The systemic administration of a therapeutic dose of 5 x 10(11) infectious particles/kg (infusion time 20 min) led to an average reduction of 8090% in the platelet count within 48 h.
Adenovirusinduced thrombocytopenia: the role of von Willebrand factor and Pselectin in mediating accelerated platelet clearance, (Blood, 2007)
Thrombocytopenia has been consistently reported following the administration of adenoviral gene transfer vectors.
The virus activates platelets and induces plateletleukocyte aggregate formation.
Polyethylene glycol modification of adenovirus reduces platelet activation, endothelial cell activation, and thrombocytopenia, (Human gene therapy, 2007)
Thrombocytopenia is one of the complications for in vivo administration of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors after intravenous injection.
Plateletadenovirus vs. inert particles interaction: effect on aggregation and the role of platelet membrane receptors, (Platelets, 2013)
Virus mediated gene therapy applications are still challenged by the resultant thrombocytopenia and the mechanism(s) of plateletforeign particles interaction remains unclear.
Pseudotyping Serotype 5 Adenovirus with the Fiber from Other Serotypes Uncovers a Key Role of the Fiber Protein in Adenovirus 5Induced Thrombocytopenia, (Human gene therapy, 2016)
นอกจากการดูหัวข้อนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถเข้าถึงบทวิจารณ์ดีๆ อื่นๆ อีกมากมายได้ที่นี่: ดูวิธีอื่นๆInvestement