Exogenous and endogenous variables in the IS-LM model | exogenous คือ

Exogenous and endogenous variables in the IS-LM model


นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูเพิ่มเติม

Exogenous variables are those variables that are independent from income (Y) and the interest rate (i). These are variables such as autonomous consumption, autonomous investment, the marginal propensity to consume, the nominal money supply, government spending and in this model taxes. \r
Endogenous variables are influenced by the level of income and the interest rate. These are variables such as induced consumption, investment and demand for money.

Exogenous and endogenous variables in the IS-LM model

Lipid Metabolism Overview, Animation


(USMLE topics) Lipid digestion and absorption; exogenous and endogenous pathways; lipolysis and lipogenesis. This video is available for instant download licensing here: https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com//galleries/narratedvideosbytopics/healthandfitness//medias/a79d879909ab45f5985246ba81c1c64dlipidmetabolismnarratedanimation
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Although the term “lipid” includes several types of molecules, lipid metabolism usually refers to the breakdown and synthesis of fats. Fats are triglycerides, they are esters of glycerol and three fatty acids. Fats can come from the diet, from stores in adipose tissue, or can be synthesized from excess dietary carbohydrates in the liver.
Dietary fats are digested mainly in the small intestine, by the action of bile salts and pancreatic lipase. Bile salts emulsify fats. They act as a detergent, breaking large globules of fat into smaller micelles, making them more accessible to lipase. Pancreatic lipase then converts triglycerides into monoglycerides, free fatty acids, and glycerol. These products move into the cells of intestinal epithelium the enterocytes, inside which they recombine again to form triglycerides. Triglycerides are packaged along with cholesterol into large lipoprotein particles called chylomicrons. Lipoproteins enable transport of waterinsoluble fats within aqueous environments. Chylomicrons leave the enterocytes, enter lymphatic capillaries, and eventually pass into the bloodstream, delivering fats to tissues. The walls of blood capillaries have a surface enzyme called lipoprotein lipase. This enzyme hydrolyzes triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol, enabling them to pass through the capillary wall into tissues, where they are oxidized for energy, or reesterized for storage.
Fats that are synthesized endogenously in the liver are packed into another type of lipoprotein, the VLDL, to be transported to tissues, where triglycerides are extracted in the same way.
When required, fat stores in adipose tissue are mobilized for energy production, by the action of hormonesensitive lipase, which responds to hormones such as epinephrine.
Lipid metabolism pathways are closely connected to those of carbohydrate metabolism. Glycerol is converted to a glycolysis intermediate, while fatty acids undergo betaoxidation to generate acetylCoA. Each round of betaoxidation removes 2 carbons from the fatty acid chain, releasing one acetylCoA, which can then be oxidized in the citric acid cycle. Betaoxidation also produces several highenergy molecules which are fed directly to the electron transport system. Fats yield more energy per unit mass than carbohydrates.
When acetylCoA is produced in excess, it is diverted to create ketone bodies. During glucose starvation, ketone bodies are an important source of fuel, especially for the brain. However, ketone bodies are acidic, and when produced in excess, can overwhelm the buffering capacity of blood plasma, resulting in metabolic acidosis, which can lead to coma and death. Ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes, in which cells must oxidize fats for fuel as they cannot utilize glucose. Extreme diets that are excessively low in carbohydrates and high in fat may also result in ketoacidosis.
On the other hand, diets that are high in carbohydrates generate excess acetylCoA that can be converted into fatty acids. Synthesis of fatty acids from acetylCoA is stimulated by citrate, a marker of energy abundance, and inhibited by excess of fatty acids. Fatty acids can be converted into triglycerides, for storage or synthesis of other lipids, by combining with glycerol derived from a glycolysis intermediate.

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Lipid Metabolism Overview, Animation

What is a Plasmid? – Plasmids 101


Plasmids. Any life scientist working in a lab has surely heard about them. But what is a plasmid? Where are they found? And why are they so useful to scientists? Find out, in this animation!
https://blog.addgene.org/plasmids101whatisaplasmid
Our Plasmids 101 videos are designed to educate all levels of scientists and plasmid lovers. For more, https://blog.addgene.org/topic/plasmids101
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Special Thanks to: Jennifer Tsang, Angela Abitua, Aliyah Weinstein, and everyone at Addgene who provided support and feedback on this project.
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What is a Plasmid? - Plasmids 101

Cholesterol Metabolism, LDL, HDL and other Lipoproteins, Animation


(USMLE topics) The science behind the GOOD and BAD cholesterol. Cholesterol transport and pathways, drugs used for treatment of atherosclerosis.
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Voice by Vicky Prizmic
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Despite having a BAD reputation as a highrisk factor for cardiovascular diseases, cholesterol is an ESSENTIAL component of all animal cells. It is an INTEGRAL part of the cell membrane, providing membrane FLUIDITY and participating in a number of cellular processes. Cholesterol also serves as a PRECURSOR for production of bile, steroid hormones, and vitamin D. While the body can obtain cholesterol from food, many cells SYNTHESIZE their own ENDOGENOUS cholesterol. Cellular production of cholesterol is under NEGATIVE FEEDBACK control. LOW levels of intracellular cholesterol INDUCE its own production, while HIGH cholesterol levels INHIBIT it.
Cholesterol, together with other lipids, is transported in blood plasma within large particles known as LIPOPROTEINS. A lipoprotein is an assembly of lipids and proteins. Lipoproteins are classified based on their DENSITY. Because lipids are LIGHTER than proteins, particles that contain MORE lipids are LARGER in size but have LOWER density. Different types of lipoproteins have different sets of proteins on their surface. These proteins serve as “ADDRESS tags”, determining the DESTINATION, and hence FUNCTION, of each lipoprotein. For example, LOWdensity lipoprotein, LDL, carries cholesterol FROM the liver to other tissues, while HIGHdensity lipoprotein, HDL, RETURNS excess cholesterol TO the liver.
Major events in cholesterol metabolism include:
Dietary cholesterol ABSORBED in the intestine and carried in chylomicron to the liver.
The liver PACKAGES its cholesterol pool a combination of endogenous and dietary together with triglycerides, another type of lipid, into particles of VERYLOWdensity lipoprotein, VLDL.
VLDL travels in bloodstream to other organs. During circulation, muscle and adipose tissues EXTRACT triglycerides from VLDL, turning it into LOWdensity lipoprotein, LDL.
Peripheral cells TAKE UP LDL by endocytosis, using LDL receptor. Cholesterol is used in cell membrane and other functions.
EXCESS cholesterol is exported from the cells and delivered to HIGHdensity lipoprotein, HDL, to be RETURNED to the liver in a process called REVERSE cholesterol transport.
The liver uses cholesterol to produce BILE; bile is secreted to the intestine, where it helps break down fats. Part of this bile is EXCRETED in feces; the rest is RECYCLED back to the liver.
LDL has the highest cholesterol content and is the MAJOR carrier of cholesterol in the blood. High levels of LDL in the blood are associated with cholesterol plaque buildup and cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks and strokes. For this reason, LDL is known as “BAD” cholesterol. On the other hand, HDL is called “GOOD” cholesterol, because it REMOVES EXCESS cholesterol from tissues and bloodstream.
Common drugs used to LOWER cholesterol include: INHIBITORS of endogenous cholesterol PRODUCTION; INHIBITORS of intestinal cholesterol ABSORPTION; and INHIBITORS of bile reuptake.

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Cholesterol Metabolism, LDL, HDL and other Lipoproteins, Animation

What Is Pangaea \u0026 Plate Tectonic? | CONTINENTAL DRIFT | The Dr Binocs Show | Peekaboo Kidz


What Is Pangaea \u0026 Plate Tectonic? | Plate Tectonic | What Is Pangaea | SUPERCONTINENT | Earth Crust | Earth Mantle | Continents On Earth | Continental Drift | Mountain Formation | Binocs Show | Dr. Binocs | Peekaboo Kidz
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What Is Pangaea \u0026 Plate Tectonic? | CONTINENTAL DRIFT | The Dr Binocs Show | Peekaboo Kidz

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