긴장하다 vs 긴장되다
The Korean language has many words that are similar in meaning, yet differ in how they are used. One of the commonly confused pairs of words in Korean is 긴장하다 vs 긴장되다, which both have the same English translation: to be tense or nervous. In this article, we will explore the differences between these two words, provide examples of how they are used, and discuss their meanings in various contexts.
긴장하다 vs 긴장되다: What’s the difference?
긴장하다 and 긴장되다 both refer to a state of tension or nervousness. However, the biggest difference between the two is that 긴장하다 is an active verb, while 긴장되다 is a passive verb.
긴장하다 is used when the subject is actively doing something to cause tension or nervousness. For example, if someone is about to take an exam and is studying hard, they might say “시험 전에 너무 긴장해” (I’m so tense before the exam). In this case, the person is actively making themselves tense through their actions (studying hard).
On the other hand, 긴장되다 is used when the subject is not actively doing anything to cause tension or nervousness, but rather something is happening to them that is causing the tension. For example, if someone is giving a presentation and is nervous, they might say “발표 때문에 너무 긴장돼” (I’m so tense because of the presentation). In this case, the nervousness is a result of something happening to the person (giving a presentation), rather than something they are actively doing.
In summary, 긴장하다 is used when the subject is actively causing tension or nervousness through their actions, while 긴장되다 is used when something is happening to the subject that is causing the tension or nervousness.
긴장하다와 긴장되다의 활용 방법 (Usage of 긴장하다 and 긴장되다)
As we’ve already discussed, the usage of 긴장하다 and 긴장되다 depends on whether the subject is actively causing tension or nervousness or whether something is happening to the subject that is causing the tension.
긴장하다 is an action verb, so it is often used with active verbs to describe how the subject is causing the tension or nervousness. For example:
– 시험 때문에 너무 많이 공부해서 긴장해 (I’m so tense because I studied too much for the exam)
– 농구 경기에서 이기고 싶어서 너무 긴장했어 (I was so tense because I wanted to win the basketball game)
In these examples, the subjects are actively studying or playing basketball, which is causing them to be tense. The verbs 공부하다 (to study) and 농구하다 (to play basketball) are both active verbs, so they pair well with 긴장하다 to express the idea of actively causing tension.
긴장되다, on the other hand, is often used with the particle 에 (because of) to describe what is causing the tension or nervousness. For example:
– 프레젠테이션 때문에 너무 긴장돼 (I’m so tense because of the presentation)
– 교통 체증 때문에 긴장돼 (I’m tense because of the traffic jam)
In these examples, something external is causing the subject to be tense, such as giving a presentation or being stuck in traffic. Therefore, 긴장되다 is used to describe the passive state of being tense or nervous.
Let’s look at some more examples of how 긴장하다 and 긴장되다 are used in everyday speech.
– 긴장하다: 오늘 시험 치뤄서 너무 긴장돼 (I’m so nervous because I have an exam today)
– 긴장되다: 시험에 문제가 어려워서 학생들이 긴장됐어 (The students were nervous because the exam questions were difficult)
– 긴장하다: 축구 경기에서 승리하고 싶어서 긴장돼 (I’m nervous because I want to win the soccer game)
– 긴장되다: 면접 때문에 긴장돼서 잠을 못 자겠어요 (I can’t sleep because I’m nervous about the interview)
– 긴장하다: 오늘 기분 나쁜 일이 있어서 너무 긴장해 (I’m so tense because I had a bad experience today)
– 긴장되다: 제가 첫 노래방 무대라 긴장돼요 (I’m nervous because it’s my first time singing at a karaoke bar)
표현 차이 (Difference in Expression)
While 긴장하다 and 긴장되다 both refer to tension or nervousness, they have different nuances in expression. 긴장하다 feels more active or intentional, while 긴장되다 feels more passive or involuntary.
When using 긴장하다, there is a sense that the subject is actively trying to control their emotions by being tense or nervous. For example, if someone says “시험이 어렵다고 생각하면 덜 긴장할 수 있어요” (If you think the exam is difficult, you can be less nervous), they are implying that the subject can actively reduce their nervousness through their thoughts or actions.
On the other hand, when using 긴장되다, there is a sense that the subject is being affected by external factors beyond their control. For example, if someone says “첫 날 회사에서 긴장됐는데, 부장님이 친절하게 해 주셔서 좀 덜 긴장됐어요” (I was nervous on my first day at the company, but the manager’s kindness made me less nervous), they are implying that the subject’s nervousness was caused by the new environment, and that something external (the manager’s kindness) alleviated the nervousness.
Therefore, when selecting which verb to use, it’s important to consider the nuance of the expression and the intended meaning.
뜻에 따른 사용 형태 (Usage Based on Meaning)
The meanings of 긴장하다 and 긴장되다 affect how they are used in various contexts. For example, in a professional setting, 긴장하다 might be used to describe a sense of focus or determination, while 긴장되다 might be used to describe anxiety or discomfort.
In an interview, when asked about how they handle pressure, someone might say “저는 긴장한 뒤에 집중할 수 있어요” (I can concentrate after being tense) to convey a positive sense of focus and determination.
However, in a social setting, someone might say “여행 가기 전 날, 나는 항상 긴장돼” (I’m always nervous the day before traveling) to express a sense of unease or discomfort.
Therefore, the meanings of 긴장하다 and 긴장되다 can shift depending on the context, so it’s important to consider the context when choosing which verb to use.
문맥별 사용 방법 (Context-based Usage)
In addition to the meaning and nuance, the context of a situation also affects how 긴장하다 and 긴장되다 are used. Let’s look at some examples of how context can affect the usage of these two words.
In a sports game, someone might say “경기에서 승리하려면 긴장해야 돼” (You have to be tense to win the game) to convey a sense of focus and determination. In this case, 긴장하다 is used to describe the sense of tension as a positive aspect of sports competition.
However, in a medical context, someone might say “수술 전에는 모두가 긴장돼” (Everyone is nervous before surgery) to describe the sense of tension as an expected and natural reaction to a potentially risky situation. In this case, 긴장되다 is used to describe the sense of tension as a passive aspect of the medical procedure.
In a job interview, someone might say “면접 때문에 긴장돼서 어떻게 대답해야 할 지 잘 몰라요” (I’m nervous because of the interview, so I don’t know how to answer well) to convey a sense of anxiety and uncertainty. In this case, 긴장되다 is used to describe the sense of tension as a negative aspect of the interview experience.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
Q: Are 긴장하다 and 긴장되다 interchangeable?
A: No, they are not interchangeable. While both refer to a state of tension or nervousness, they have different connotations depending on whether the subject is actively causing the tension or something external is causing the tension.
Q: How can I tell when to use 긴장하다 vs 긴장되다?
A: The decision to use 긴장하다 or 긴장되다 depends on whether the subject is actively causing the tension or nervousness or whether something external is causing the tension.
Q: Can 긴장하다 and 긴장되다 be used in formal settings?
A: Yes, they can be used in formal settings, but it’s important to consider the nuance and context of their usage. In professional settings, 긴장하다 might be used to convey a sense of focus or determination, while 긴장되다 might be used to express anxiety or discomfort.
Q: Is one verb more commonly used than the other?
A: It depends on the context and situation. In some situations, one verb might be more appropriate than the other, but there is no general rule for which verb is used more commonly.
Q: Are there any idiomatic expressions using 긴장하다 and 긴장되다?
A: Yes, there are many idiomatic expressions using 긴장하다 and 긴장되다. For example, “긴장 풀다” (to relax), “긴장감 있게” (intense or nerve-wracking) and “긴장하지 마세요” (don’t be nervous).
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